Windows

Cygwin is a bash shell that runs Windows binaries. You need a ‘Run as Administrator’ Cygwin terminal to work with block devices.

List disks as seen by Cygwin:

cat /proc/partitions

Clone a disk:

dd if=/dev/sdX of=/dev/sdY bs=4M status=progress

macOS

Partitions should be dismounted when working on the disk.

List disks:

diskutil list

Clone a disk:

sudo dd if=/dev/diskX of=/dev/diskY bs=4194304

Linux

List block devices:

lsblk

Clone a disk:

sudo dd if=/dev/sdX of=/dev/sdY bs=4M status=progress